For the first time in the history of science, this treatise unveils and defines the Mainstream Sequence of Galaxy Evolution!

One of the greatest mysteries in the universe is the Origin of Hydrogen. Hydrogen accounts for 70% of the atomic composition of the universe but nobody knows for certain where it came from. With the single exception of Hydrogen, the other atoms are formed by nuclear fusion in the stars and radioactive decay. But where did Hydrogen come from? A magical Big Bang? And which came first, the Galaxies or the Stars? And what is the evolutionary relationship between active Blue Dwarf Galaxies and Elliptical Galaxies and Spiral Galaxies? And what is the Quasar with its astounding plasma jets.....and where did the Quasar come from.....and what function does the Quasar have in the universe? This scientific treatise on the Origin and Evolution of the Universe has clearly solved each and every one of these mysteries!

By solving the Mystery of Hydrogen, I have been able to define the nature of the Quasar and demonstrate through evidence the systematic Sequence of Galaxy Evolution. As this is an enormously important paradigm that I believe is going to catalyze a renaissance in scientific understanding about the origin and evolution of the galaxies and universe, I am making the entire book available on this web site for the scientific community and anyone who is interested in the Origin and Evolution of the Universe.

Highlights and Overview of Scientific Theory


CLICK   to download Title Page, Table of Contents and Chapter 1 Introduction

Galaxy Evolution

From Part I of Scientific Theory — Galaxy Birth, Growth and Evolution

Evolution of the galaxy occurs as an uninterrupted continuum beginning with ignition of an Ongoing "Big-Bang" process within the supermassive gravitational density of the Quasar. Quasar is the first born star of a uniquely different nature.  Sequence of Galaxy Evolution Stars are known to be formed by gravitational collapse of a hydrogen nebula that reaches the threshold of thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. In a similar gravitational manner, Quasars are formed from pre- and non-atomic particles (dark matter) that gravitationally collapse into a supermassive "black hole" density that reaches the "Big-Bang" threshold of quark-gluon particle fusion into the atomic nucleus of hydrogen. Plasma jets composed of protons and electrons (Hydrogen!) are jettisoned by the Ongoing "Big-Bang" process into surrounding space. The expanding hydrogen atmosphere flooding into space around the quasar regionally evolves from plasma jets to ionic (H+) to atomic (H0) to molecular (H2) form in the cooler surrounding regions. This continuous saturation of surrounding space with hydrogen in plasma, ionic, atomic and molecular form gradually evolves into a Radio Galaxy. First generation star birth conditions are reached within the radio-emitting hydrogen atmosphere and give rise to the first optical evidence of stellar evolution in the form of active Blue Dwarf Galaxy. Ongoing hydrogen formation fuels regional stellar evolution and the resulting optical galaxy grows in size from E0 to E7 (Edwin Hubble classification). Stellar evolution within the growing elliptical galaxy transforms the galaxy content from young blue to old red stars (Hertzsprung-Russell diagram) culminating in supernova explosions that regionally change the atomic composition of the galaxy's star forming areas, which systematically accounts for the regional distribution of Population I and Population II Stars within the galaxy, thereby defining stellar formation and optical galaxy anatomy for each stage of galaxy growth and evolution. Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) formation resulting from Ongoing "Big-Bang" synthesis of hydrogen within the Quasar and regional stellar evolution at galaxy center result in gradual formation of circumnuclear rings of atomic-molecular dust. The accumulation and centrifugal spread of this intragalactic dust is what changes the shape of the galaxy from spherical to elliptical (E0 to E7) and results in morphological conversion from ellipse to disk (S0). Ongoing massive dust formation within the AGN region spills outward into bars and spiral arms of visible atomic-molecular dust which centrifugally reshapes the growing mass of the galaxy from elliptical into spiral form (Sa to Sc).

In summary, Ongoing "Big-Bang" synthesis of Hydrogen within Quasar leads to regional Stellar Evolution. Regional Stellar Evolution leads to sequential fusion and evolution of the Periodic Table of Atoms. Atomic-molecular coupling in the AGN region leads to the gradual formation of visible Galaxy Dust. Ongoing formation of massive amounts of visible galaxy dust centrifugally reshapes the galaxy from elliptical to spiral form. Atomic-molecular amassment and evolution within the spiral plane of spiral galaxies accounts for the formation of planets and the evolution of the creatures and Microcosm of Man.

This entire theory is based upon the insight that the supermassive "black hole" density of the Quasar is the site of an Ongoing "Big-Bang" process of quark-gluon particle fusion into the atomic nucleus of hydrogen. In the original Big Bang Theory, all the hydrogen in the universe was formed within minutes by a Single Big Bang that is said to have occurred 10 to 20 billion years ago. At the turn of the century,  100 billion galaxies are visible through the Hubble and Chandra telescopes, each of which contain hundreds of millions of stars. Hydrogen is known to account for over 70% of the atomic composition of the universe. The notion that all the hydrogen in these 100 billion galaxies exploded magically into physical existence within a few minutes of real time—strains believability to the breaking point!

This kind of magic does not have to happen when hydrogen is gradually produced by an ongoing particle-fusion process within the supermassive density of the Quasar! This treatise defines the nature of the quasar and demonstrates the pivotal role of the quasar in the process of galaxy formation and universe evolution.

New Evidence – Quasar Makes Hydrogen!

Quasar HE0450-2958 has been called the "naked quasar" and "quasar without a home" because it appears to lack a host galaxy. The following scientific study published in Astronomy & Astrophysics in 2009 provides pertinent evidence that the quasar may be the site of hydrogen synthesis in the universe:

Quasar induced galaxy formation: a new paradigm? by D. Elbaz1, K. Jahnke2, E. Pantin1, D. Le Borgne3, 4, and G. Letawe5 (Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 507, Number 3, Published online 15 October 2009) Aims of study: "We discuss observational evidence that quasars play a key role in the formation of galaxies, starting from the detailed study of the quasar HE0450-2958 and extending the discussion to a series of converging evidence that radio jets may trigger galaxy formation."

European Southern Observatory (ESO) 30 November 2009 Press Release about the above study (Press Release entitled Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?) provides the following video animation illustrating the jet from quasar HE0450-2958 triggering formation of stars in a companion galaxy "at a rate equivalent to about 350 Suns per year".


34 Second Video Showing Quasar Inducing Star Formation

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Observations with ESO’s Very Large Telescope and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope of the peculiar object, the nearby quasar HE0450-2958, which is the only one for which no sign of a host galaxy has yet been detected, have led astronomers to propose that jets coming out from supermassive black holes could form galaxies, thereby explaining why the mass of black holes is larger in galaxies that contain more stars. This animation starts from the real images of the object and then shows an artist’s impression of a black hole zapping a galaxy into existence. This galaxy will finally merge with the quasar, which will then be “dressed”.

Credit: ESO/NASA/ESA/D. Elbaz/L. Calçada


Hydrogen jettisoned from Quasar causes New Star BirthIn my Ongoing "Big-Bang" Theory of galaxy and universe evolution, all hydrogen in the universe is synthesized within quasars! The jets exploding out of every quasar consist of proton-electron plasma which extend thousands of light-years into surrounding space. These jets regionally evolve from proton-electron plasma to ionic (H+) to atomic (H0) to molecular hydrogen (H2) form in the cooler regions surrounding the quasar. Continuous saturation of surrounding space by hydrogen forms the nebulae that give birth to stars! Quasar HE0450-2958 and its "companion galaxy" are at the beginning of this Mainstream Sequence of Galaxy Evolution. In the video illustration, the hydrogen content of the "companion galaxy" that is giving birth to 350 new stars every year has been synthesized within and jettisoned from quasar HE0450-2958, rather than the jet "zapping" hydrogen that was preformed by a single "Big Bang" that is said to have occurred one time over 10 billion years ago. The notion that a single "Big Bang" could have created all the hydrogen in the universe within minutes is an illusion that is blinding the entire scientific world about the nature of the quasar and its relationship to galaxy evolution. Rather than a single "Big Bang" beginning of the universe, this Ongoing "Big-Bang theory shows how:

 — All hydrogen in the universe is made within Quasars! —

CLICK to see Letter to Professor Elbaz demonstrating evidence that all hydrogen in the universe is made in Quasars

New Paradigm of Universe Evolution

I have defined a 4th spatial dimension of depth by which all magnitudes of spinning mass (—Galaxies—Stars—Atoms—Particles—) can be geometrically aligned on an inside-outside axis that corresponds precisely to the physical structure of the universe. Galaxies are made of Stars. Stars are made of Atoms. Atoms are made of Particles. The alignment of this Spectrum of Magnitudes on an inside-outside axis defines a dimension of depth that integrates the structural nature of the universe in 4 spatial dimensions. Based upon the realization that the physical universe is composed of not just 3 but 4 spatial dimensions in simultaneous time, I have developed a new paradigm of understanding that accounts for the sequential evolution of the galaxies and physical universe.

Frontispiece on Title Page of Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Sphere of Cosmos in 4th Spatial Dimension

Rather than Hydrogen appearing magically by a Single Big Bang that inexplicably occurred one time in the History of Universe, I have redefined the "Big Bang" as a physical threshold point that results in quark-gluon particle fusion into the atomic nucleus of hydrogen. Rather than the Big Bang being the magical origin of Space and Time and all the hydrogen in the universe at once, this theory provides insight and evidence that shows how hydrogen is produced by an ongoing particle-fusion process within the supermassive density of the Quasar. This "Big-Bang" Model of quark-gluon fusion into hydrogen is modeled after the gravitational sequence that results in thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in the stars, but occurs within a supermassive gravitational density capable of reaching the original theory's quark-gluon plasma conditions that result in the synthesis of hydrogen. Rather than the Big Bang abruptly giving rise to all the pre-atomic particles in the universe within one utterly unrealistic minute (First Minute of Original Big Bang Theory), this theory shows how there had to be a Pre-Bang Universe of Energy and Particles already in existence that gravitationally gave rise to the supermassive density that reached the threshold conditions of the Big-Bang. This theory thereby provides an entirely new scientific paradigm for exploring the dark matter mystery of the universe, a Pre-Bang Universe and Post-Bang Universe that are simultaneously coexistent throughout the surrounding Cosmosphere.

Ongoing "Big Bang" Origin of Universe

From Chapter 6 — Galaxy by Galaxy Evolution of the Universe

I have selected excerpts from the scientific treatise that describe this Sequence of Galaxy Evolution, compare Single Big Bang vs Recurring and Ongoing Big-Bang Origin of Universe, define Pre-Bang + Post-Bang Universe in 4 spatial dimensions, explore the Inside-Outside Axis of the 4th Spatial Dimension as a new scientifically defined spatial dimension, and examine the Large Scale Structure of the Universe from Ongoing Big-Bang perspective.

Single Big Bang vs Recurring and Ongoing Big-Bang Origin of Universe
  Single
Big Bang
Recurring
Big Bang
Ongoing
Big Bang
Origin
of
Big Bang
Unexplainable and incomprehensible Infinite Density Supermassive finite density that resulted from gravity implosion of energy/mass within Universe of Energy and Particles Black Hole formed by gravity implosion coalesces and enlarges
Cause
of
Big Bang
Unknowable, because laws of physics don’t apply before point of singularity of Big Bang Gravity implosion of energy/mass resulted in a supermassive density that reached a definable threshold of Big Bang Supermassive density continuously explodes (pattern analogous to thermonuclear explosion of stars)
Location
of
Big Bang
Unknowable, because Space did not exist before Big Bang Locus in space corresponds to each quasar Supermassive nuclear center of each quasar and active galaxy
Magnitude
of
Big Bang
Equal to total Mass and Energy of entire Physical Universe Equal to total mass and energy of each respective quasar and galaxy Equal to ongoing genesis of hydrogen required for gradual galaxy growth and evolution
Galaxy Birth All galaxies rippled apart into separate existence from One Cosmic Mass at the same time Big Bang forms island of  hydrogenous dark matter in space  
Galaxy Growth Galaxies cannot grow! Preexistent galaxies can only enlarge by collision and merger Initial Big Bang is the starting mass and energy of galaxy growth and evolution, the beginning of its lifecycle Galaxy is fueled and grows from inside outward from ongoing Big-Bang hydrogen formation at its supermassive nuclear center
Galaxy Evolution All galaxies evolve simultaneously, from preexistent baryonic and elemental atomic mass Each galaxy evolves individually Supermassive nuclear center is the root source of galaxy existence, providing ongoing supply of hydrogen for growth and evolution
Physical Prototype for
Supermassive Density
of Big Bang
None Quasar and supermassive "black hole" density at center of every Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Giant Plasma Jets and Radio Jets arising from supermassive “black hole” density in Quasars and AGNs

By reformulating the Space-Time Model of Big Bang into a Gravity Implosion—Energy Explosion Model that has two sides to the equation, both the Pre-Bang Universe and Post-Bang Universe are herein geometrically defined, mapped and physically linked in space by the Ongoing Big-Bang process of hydrogen formation within each Quasar and AGN.

Pre-Bang + Post-Bang Universe

From Chapter 6 — Galaxy by Galaxy Evolution of the Universe

If the Big Bang is a threshold point in a process rather than the point of origin of Space and Time, the physical universe could have evolved from a pattern of recurring and ongoing Big-Bangs. Realistically speaking, if a single Big Bang can be envisioned as the origin of the total mass of 100 billion galaxies in one minute, a recurring pattern of Big Bangs can just as easily be envisioned as the origin of each galaxy, with the universe evolving galaxy by galaxy over cosmological time. When one considers that each galaxy contains billions of stars, plus a mass of dark matter that is greater than all the stars combined, plus an exploding supermassive nuclear center that contains a black-hole DENSITY equivalent to 3 billion solar masses, the magnitude of beginning for one galaxy is an enormous Big Bang!

Cone of Space Explosion Let’s get this Big Bang nailed down to reality so that we can examine both sides of the equation. The original Big Bang arose from a DENSITY. What was that DENSITY? What ignited that DENSITY into the Big Bang? Where was that DENSITY? What process created that DENSITY? How much time did it take for that DENSITY to form?  Hydrogen gravitationally implode into Stars. Stars gravitationally implode into Black Holes. These processes take eons of time! Is there any reason to think that the process that imploded the Pre-Bang DENSITY into existence didn’t take eons of time? Certainly, there had to be a universe of energy and pre-atomic elements in existence in order for that DENSITY to be formed in the first place. Otherwise, how could the supermassive density of the original theory that resulted in the Big Bang be formed?

Let’s look at what happens when the Big Bang is analyzed as a threshold point in a process, rather than being an uncaused DENSITY that mysteriously exploded and expanded Space into existence as well as everything else. The Pre-Bang density had to be formed by a gravitational implosion of something that already existed, a gravitational implosion of preexisting energy and/or particulate mass into a finite (rather than infinite) density that reached the threshold of explosion known as Big Bang. If the Big Bang is a threshold point in a process rather than point of origin of Space and Time, then the first second “after” the Big Bang in the original theory can be moved to the other side of the equation to “before” the Big Bang where it belongs, because the free quark to quark-gluon plasma transition is a physical compression process rather than an expansion process. And there is now all the space and time that is needed for that cosmological process to occur.

From Chapter 7 – Big Bang With A Cause: The Quasar!

By converting the Big Bang theory from a Space-Time Model to a Gravity Implosion—Energy Explosion Model that occurs in Space, we can formulate a theory that has two sides to the equation, and thereby can begin to explore the cause as well as result of the Big Bang in process terms. The key to this conversion is changing how we look at the Big Bang itself. Rather than the Big Bang being a geometrical Point of Singularity in Space-Time, beyond which the laws of physics no longer apply, the Big Bang has to be a Threshold Point in a Process that has two sides to the equation: Cause and Result. Thermo-particle fusion of quark-gluon plasma into hydrogen is the threshold point of the Big Bang in this Gravity Implosion—Energy Explosion Model. This requires modifying the first second of the original Big Bang theory in which quark-gluon plasma is fused into baryons. Move the process in the first second “after” the Big Bang to “before” the Big Bang: 1) reverse the outward-inward direction of the free quark to quark-gluon plasma phase of the process, 2) reverse the physics from explosive expansion to gravitational implosion to account for the free quark to quark-gluon plasma transition, and 3) redefine the Big Bang as the threshold point that strong-force binds the quark-gluon plasma into hydrogen. This can be accomplished conceptually by shifting the Big-Bang threshold point in the process by one second in the original theory, because from the horizon of completion of baryonogenesis onward, the result side of the picture can still reflect the expanding materialization side of the original theory, albeit the Gravity Implosion—Energy Explosion process is causing the explosion and expansion of matter and energy in Space rather than the expansion of Space causing the materialization process.

Cause of Big BangThe site of the Big Bang is designated as a Supermassive Black Hole DENSITY in order to define the “infinite” density of the original theory in finite terms, which we need to do in order to find the actual site of the Big Bang in space. The nomenclature of Supermassive Black Hole and Event Horizon are used here to describe a finite spatial entity, the Mass of Black Hole and gravitational Event Horizon of Black Hole, in order to define the Black Hole and Big Bang as a Gravity Implosion—Energy Explosion process that takes place in a finite Magnitude of Mass that has the potential of fusing quark-gluon plasma into hydrogen. With two sides to the equation, we have the beginning of a model we can use to examine theoretical possibilities for the cause of the Big Bang, because the space and time needed for these cosmological processes to occur in the magnitude they had to occur is unlimited.

Galaxy Growth and Evolution If a Universe of Energy and Particles caused the supermassive density of the original Big Bang, it is most reasonable to expect that that universe still exists, and still has the supermassive gravitational potential to do again what it did before: gravitationally form the supermassive density of the Big Bang. In other words, the cause of the supermassive density that resulted in the Big Bang is still in place. With this potential for a recurring Big-Bang process, it becomes possible for the galaxies to arise individually at different sites throughout space in the pattern we see. With an Ongoing Big-Bang process, it also becomes possible for galaxies to grow from small to large in gradual fashion over time because an Ongoing Big-Bang means ongoing hydrogen production. Furthermore, if there is an Ongoing Big-Bang producing massive amounts of hydrogen that causes each galaxy to grow, it must be located in the “supermassive black hole” center of the galaxy, because the only place in the universe where supermassive densities of sufficient potential magnitude exist are all located within quasars and the supermassive black hole center of active galaxies.

From Chapter 10 – Evidence of Ongoing Big-Bang in Center of Every Active Galaxy

In each of the press reports to follow, I will first summarize the information in the press release, then I will describe the significance of this data from an ongoing Big-Bang perspective.

Black Hole in Galaxy M87 May 25, 1994, a press release from the Space Telescope Science Institute reported that astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope found conclusive evidence for a black hole in the center of galaxy M87 (HST Images at right). The discovery was based on velocity measurements of a disk of hot ionized gas orbiting around the black hole. Precise measurement of the mass of the object that is making the gaseous disk spin showed that the black hole weighs as much as 3 billion suns, but is concentrated into a space no larger than our solar system. The massive black hole was thought to be the engine generating the enormous energies that power the jet, that extends from the black hole in the center to beyond the outer edge of the visible galaxy. The cloud of hot gas in the disk was reported to be composed mostly of ionized hydrogen. HST spectrograph measurements showed that the disk was rotating so rapidly that it contains a massive black hole at its hub. The press release stated that it was clear that the region contains only a fraction of the number of stars that would be necessary to create such a powerful attraction, concluding that there must be something else there that cannot be seen.

Although the source of the enormous power that generates the jets coming from black holes has been somewhat of a mystery, most scientists today attribute the explosive power to release of energy from gas and matter falling into the black hole. My interpretation of this data and the data to follow is that there is an ongoing Big-Bang inside the supermassive density of the black hole that is the “engine” causing the explosive outburst of these jets, and that the substance of the jets and the massive swirling disk of hot ionized hydrogen gas were materialized by this ongoing Big-Bang process.

In the center of that disk is a bright burning inferno! And in the center of that burning inferno is a supermassive black hole! Now how can a “black hole” burn ferociously? I think what we are looking at is the quasar, and the reason the quasar is burning more brilliantly than 100 billion stars is because it is an Ongoing Big-Bang. The Quasar, that burning orb in the center of the galaxy, is both Father of the Galaxy and Mother of the Stars, jettisoning and seeding the substance and fuel of optical galaxy evolution and materializing all that is in it!

Careful scientific observations of galaxies and quasars through optical and X-ray and radio telescopes, observations at different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, have led science to the realization that there is a supermassive black hole in the center of all large galaxies. The evidence for the presence of these supermassive black holes is based on the enormous orbital velocity of stars and gas clouds near the black hole and the presence of optical jets and radio jets exploding outward from quasars and from the active galactic nuclei of many galaxies. X-ray and radio telescope observations have shown that astronomical amounts of energy are being produced by quasars and the nuclear centers of galaxies, but the nature and magnitude of this energy varies considerably. Quasars are said to radiate as much energy per second as a thousand galaxies from a region that has a diameter about one millionth the size of the host galaxy. Galaxies that have an active nuclear center that produces an energy output equivalent to the entire galaxy within which it is contained have been designated as active galaxies or Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), and AGNs comprise a small percentage of all galaxies. Until recently, the supermassive black holes in the remainder of the galaxies have been thought of as quiescent, because relative to quasars and AGNs the energy output from their nuclear center is much feebler. I was surprised to learn that galaxy M87, like most large elliptical galaxies, was considered to be a quiet, non-active galaxy.

Galaxy M87 is the strongest emitter of radio waves in the Virgo cluster, and its radio emission has been studied since it was first observed in 1948. Radio astronomy was also responsible for the discovery of quasars in the 1950’s, as quasi-stellar radio sources. During 1999, radio astronomy brought us right to the very door of the Black Hole and—Surprise!—Surprise!—Surprise!—found subatomic particles and energy jettisoning out of it and flooding galactic and intergalactic space galore, or so it clearly seemed to me as I viewed the photos and findings of the following two press releases.

October 27, 1999, Hubble Space Telescope News (Space Telescope Science Institute Press Release No. STScI-PR99-43: VLBA Reveals Formation Region of Giant Cosmic Jet Near Black Hole) reported that astronomers used radio telescopes in Europe and the U.S., including the National Science Foundation’s Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the most detailed images ever of the center of galaxy M87, “where a powerful stream of subatomic particles spewing outward at nearly the speed of light is formed into a beam, or jet, that then goes nearly straight for thousands of light-years.”

Galaxy M87 Jet The press release caption for the composite image shows a close-up look at M87’s jet near the black hole. TOP LEFT is a radio image of galaxy M87 taken with the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in February 1989, and shows the giant bubble-like structures where radio emission is thought to be powered by the jets of subatomic particles coming from the galaxy’s central black hole. TOP RIGHT is a visible light image of galaxy M87 taken with NASA Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in February 1998, and reveals a brilliant jet of high-speed electrons emitted from the nucleus. The jet was said to be produced by the 3- billion-solar-mass black hole. AT BOTTOM is a Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio image of the region close to the black hole, where the extragalactic jet is formed into a narrow beam by magnetic fields. The dark region in the center is about 1/10 light-year across.

HST image (upper right) corresponds to the HST images in the previous references. The composite shows how the images correspond to each other. The small box in the VLA radio image (upper left) shows how the radio jet corresponds to the optical jet (upper right), two views of the same jet at different wavelengths. The VLA image also shows how the radio emission extends far outside the visible galaxy. The VLBA radio image (bottom) corresponds to the brilliant nuclear center of the galaxy in the HST image.

Referring to the VLBA image, the press release reports that this is the first time anyone has seen the region in which a cosmic jet is formed into a narrow beam, that M87’s jet is formed within a few tenths of a light-year of the galaxy’s core, that the 60-degree angle of the inner part of M87’s jet is the widest such angle yet seen in any jet in the universe. In the formation region, the jet was seen opening widely, at an angle of about 60 degrees, nearest the black hole, but is squeezed down to only 6 degrees a few light-years away. Radio observations with the VLBA and optical observations with the HST have measured motions of concentrations of material in M87’s jet and have shown the material to be moving at apparent speeds greater than that of light. The “superluminal” motion was thought to be a geometric illusion created by material moving near, but under, the speed of light, but in a direction somewhat toward the Earth.

January 7, 1999, National Radio Astronomy Observatory (Press Release: Astronomers Discover Spectacular Structure in Distant Galaxy) reported that researchers using the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope imaged a spectacular and complex structure in galaxy M87 which resolves a decades-old observational mystery and revises current theories about the origin of X-ray emission coming from gas surrounding the galaxy.

M87 Radio Structure This composite shows radio images of M87 at vastly different size scales, obtained by using the VLA at the various radio wavelengths indicated on each image. The larger the wavelength, the larger the structure. VLA-90 cm (center) shows the full extent of the radio source. The large- scale “radio halo” (the structure indicated by lines in the center of the large plumes and cloud) is over 200,000 light-years wide. VLA-20 cm (upper left) shows the “inner lobes and jet”. VLA-2 cm (upper right) shows “the jet.” You can see that the upper left image corresponds to the upper left radio image in the previous report, the inner lobes of which extended beyond the HST visible galaxy. The lines in the composite show that the “inner lobes and jet” (upper left) lie deep within the small central region of the “radio halo” (center). The caption said that the “radio halo” covers an area larger than the optical galaxy, and is a study of the inner region of the Virgo cluster. One can also see that the radio jet (upper right) corresponds to the HST optical jet in the previous report. VLBI-1.3 cm (lower left) shows the innermost features of the jet which measures about 1/3 of a light-year wide, about 100 times the size of the black hole which drives the system. The mystery solved is the source of the large-scale structure of the radio halo, which they believe is being powered by the black hole at the galaxy’s center. The “radio halo” (center) is described as a bubble with a well-defined outer edge. The two large, bubble-like lobes emitting radio waves are more than 200,000 light-years across. The bright plumes emanating from the inner lobes indicated to the radio astronomers that the halo is still “alive”, being supplied with energy from the black hole. Their interpretation is that the radio-emitting material is flowing outward from the galaxy’s core into these large, bright, radio-emitting bubbles, and the lobes appear to be powered by gravitational energy released from the black hole at the galaxy’s center. The report states that galaxy M87 and its radio halo sit in a large atmosphere of hot, X-ray loud gas, and that the bubbles of the halo are sitting inside a region known to be emitting X-rays. What the researchers know about radio jets suggested to them that the energy being pumped into this radio region from the galaxy’s central black hole exceeds the energy being lost in the X-ray emission. As the system is more like a heating flow than a cooling flow, it was concluded that scientists are going to have to revise their ideas about the physics of what’s going on in regions like this.

Every time the astrophysicists slice the galaxy and universe into different wavelengths of thickness with the Cosmic Microtome of the Electromagnetic Spectrum, which is what they do every time they launch a new telescope, we see an entirely different picture, an entirely different magnitude of physical structure. What those radio astronomers have done with their VLA and VLBA radio telescopes is serially slice the radio structure of galaxy M87 on the inside-outside axis of the 4th spatial dimension and arrayed its magnificent structure in images that can be comprehended by the eyes of all mankind. Looking at this beautiful array of images, any pathologist, any hematologist, any microscopist in the world can see the spatial dimension of depth in this structure immediately, even though the size and spatial extent of the structure spans thousands of light-years rather than millimeters, microns and angstroms. The radio astronomers have dissected and serially sectioned the composite radio structure of the galaxy (gross anatomical structure) into its smaller and smaller component structural magnitudes and parts (akin to dissecting and slicing microscopic and electron microscopic sections of structural magnitude) from which the composite whole is made. And those astrophysicists have traced the origin and evolution of that “alive” structure, that exploding and expanding fountain of radio-emitting mass, to the very source of its explosive beginning: the supermassive “black hole” in the center of the galaxy!

These radio astronomers have rung a bell that should be heard through all the Halls of Science throughout the world. This is a—Wakeup—bell! The whole physics of that region needs to be reworked.

Look at that Black Hole. Burning more brilliantly than a hundred million stars! That is not just a Black Hole! That is a White Hole! That is both a Black Hole and a White Hole. Gravitationally, a Black Hole. Explosively, a White Hole. The process that formed that supermassive black hole, and the process that has held that supermassive black hole in equilibrium for eons of galaxy time, is the very same process that forms and ignites and maintains the stars: Gravity Implosion—Energy Explosion! Equal and opposite forces in equilibrium—but 3 billion times more gravitationally dense and 3 billion times more explosive than the stars, because that particle jet exploding out of that black hole is rocketing straight-up against a force of gravity equivalent to—3 billion solar masses! Only after shooting straight-up for thousands of light years does the propulsion power of that jet finally diminish sufficiently for its particle mass to be caught by the gravitational force of that supermassive density at galaxy center, where the inner limb appears to turn and orbit as it continues to gush into intra- and extragalactic space in an astronomically widening cloud of particulate mass and energy.

That radio structure of galaxy M87, which looks like a Genie expanding out of Aladdin’s Magic Lamp, is not a computer simulation. We are looking at radio photographs of the nuclear center of the galaxy, and it is exploding out of a furiously burning black hole and expanding through outer galactic space right in front of our eyes!

What everyone is calling a “black hole” is a burning—ORB—equivalent to 3 billion solar masses! As clearly as we see the Sun in the Sky, we are looking at the Big Bang and the supermassive burning DENSITY in which it happens!

Why is it that someone who spent his life looking through a microscope can see this, but those who look through a telescope for a living, and who know infinitely more about astrophysics than I ever will, don’t see it? I think the reason this has not been realized is because astrophysicists are locked in frame of reference to the Space-Time Model of the Universe. As helpful as those coordinates have been, this frame of reference has created an illusionary physical universe that leaves us blind at two impassible points, at two Points of Singularity that are physical impossibilities: 1) a Physical Universe that physically began from a Point of Singularity; 2) Black Holes that physically end at a Point of Singularity.

This Point-of-Singularity confusion has resulted in an enormous illusion that is disorienting the entire scientific world, which in turn is hampering the eyesight and insight of the most powerful minds on our planet, who with exceptionally good intelligence and perfectly good vision are looking at this universe through eyes that have been focused and refracted by an erroneous conclusion: namely, that the entire elemental atomic mass of the physical universe, including all of the hydrogen atoms that constitute 70% of the atomic universe, are believed to have been created en masse 20 billion years ago by a single fait accompli Big-Bang event. This misconception, that the entire physical universe arose from a Point of Singularity that was a single point of infinite density located at a single point in space at a single point in time (single, historical Big Bang) has replicated like a genetic error in the DNA of Perception and Belief that forms the template of mind for every person who dons the cap of graduation to enter the hallowed Halls of Science. As a result, everything in the universe is viewed as the RESULT of a single Big Bang of mythical magnitude, and nothing in the universe is seen as possible contributing factors or CAUSE of the Big Bang. Consequently, when astrophysicists look at the Quasars and at the Active Galactic Nuclei of “active” galaxies and at Supermassive Black Holes in the center of “inactive” elliptical galaxies like M87, which are the most powerful ongoing explosions in the universe, erupting “Giant Cosmic Plasma Jets” from the most brilliant orbs having the greatest known density of any objects in the universe, the fact that they may be looking directly at the Big-Bang process never crosses their mind. Because everybody knows that the Big Bang occurred all of a sudden one time 10-20 billion years ago, so everybody assumes for a fact that all the hydrogen in the universe was preformed 10-20 billion years ago, long before the galaxies began to appear.

So all the hydrogen ions and hydrogen atoms and hydrogen molecules that are in each galaxy are believed to have been in existence for billions of years before the galaxy even began to form: including the hydrogen ions that form the massive gaseous accretion disks that are swirling around the supermassive black holes in the center of each galaxy, and the subatomic particles of protons and electrons in the plasma jets that are seen exploding out from those black holes all the way through the galaxy and spreading into intergalactic space, and the gigantic intergalactic clouds of atomic hydrogen gas that have been mapped by radio astronomers at 21-centimeter wavelength and by absorption lines of Lyman alpha transition of atomic hydrogen, and the halo of neutral hydrogen gas detected at radio wavelengths that surrounds and extends far beyond the visible optical edge of every galaxy, and the high-velocity clouds of gas that have been observed in the halo of the Milky Way Galaxy coursing through space at mysterious velocity so fast that the clouds of gas are moving independent of the gravitational rotation of the galaxy. All of this hydrogen is believed to have been created by the historical Big Bang. As a result, scientific theory can move the hydrogen around and can change hydrogen from one form to another and can fuse hydrogen into larger atoms in the stars, but the notion of an ongoing Big-Bang flooding the galaxy and vast regions of intergalactic space from a galactic geyser of newly formed radio-emitting hydrogen is as unreal and far fetched as a Genie pouring out of Aladdin’s Magic Lamp.

And almost as far fetched as the entire physical universe exploding and expanding out of a single mathematical Point of Singularity in space no bigger than a…period.

From Origin and Evolution of the Universe, a Unified Scientific Theory by Paul Hollister MD, Copyright 2004